Impact of an online learning by concordance program on reflection | BMC Medical Education

The two focus groups featured a total of ten participants (participant nos. 1 to 10), and six individual interviews were conducted (participant nos. 11 to 16). Table 1 presents the characteristics of the participants. The first focus group lasted 1 h 25 min, and the second lasted 1 h 50 min. The single motive indicated for nonparticipation pertained to scheduling issues. Individual interviews were conducted, which lasted from 30 to 54 min. Table 2 provides an overview of thematic categories and representative quotations for the deductive and inductive coding.

Table 1 Characteristics of participants
Table 2 Thematic categories and representative quotes of deductive and inductive coding

Deductive coding

The qualitative analysis comprised 203 codes in the focus groups and 206 codes in the individual interviews, which were divided into five groups based on the components of reflection in the Nguyen model: thoughts and actions; attentive, critical, exploratory, and iterative process (ACEI); underlying conceptual frames component; change and self (see Table 3).

Table 3 deductive coding tree

The “thoughts and actions” component

Participants felt the need to train themselves to read ECGs based on their upcoming confrontation with ECGs during the internship and their fear of error.

“So I said to

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